Migration Policy Institute | Everything a traveler should is enlightenment to all travelers especially when moving from one place to another. Most times people do wonder what the Migration Policy institute is all about
Migration policy is a part of Migration governance and widely used without being clearly defined, to get a wider perspective there is a need for a better understanding of what migration is all about and also why there is a need for Migration Policy.
What is Migration?
Migration is basically the seasonal movement of a complete population, persons, from one country, locality and place of residence, in order to settle down.
The movement of people from one place to another can be largely due to a lot of reasons which range from lack of service, lack of safety, high crime, crop failure, drought, flooding, poverty, war, and so on.
Furthermore, Migration is usually a response to changes in temperature, food supply, or the amount of daylight, and is often undertaken for the purpose of breeding, Mammals, insects, fish, and birds all migrate.
Why People Migrate?
One of the most prevalent reasons why people migrate from one place to another is due to employment opportunities.
Aside from this largely known cause, other obvious reasons are, lack of better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster, and sometimes lack water, electricity, and roads can make villagers migrates to the cities.
There are about four types of migration that cover why people migrate per state, per country, and continent.
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Types of human migration include:
- internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent
- external migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent
- emigration: leaving one country to move to another
- immigration: moving into a new country
- return migration: moving back to where you came from
- seasonal migration: moving with each season or in response to labor or climate conditions
Categories of People Who Migrates
People Migrate for a lot of reasons just as earlier mentioned, also there are specific names given to people based on their intentions where are they are migrating to
EMIGRANT: This is a person leaving one country to live in another.
IMMIGRANT: This is a person who is entering a country from another country to make a new home.
REFUGEE: This a person who has moved to a new country because of the problem in their former home.
Importance of migration policies
The need for a Migration policy is so as to oversee the movement of people from one pace to another.
The growing interest in comparative analyses of migration has led to a series of attempts to assess and compare countries’ migration policies and governance, including immigration, emigration, and integration.
The data that is used to assess migration policies are based on expert evaluation of existing laws and regulations and provides insight into aspects of countries’5 governance.
Why Migration Policy
Research has shown that due to complex and dynamic, nature of population flow in the region, Migration management is of topmost priorities.
As a traveler, it is essential to know the major areas Migration flow covers, Migration management, migration, and development, facilitating migration, and regulating migration. Recently states have been actively engaging in migration dialogue and cooperation.
This recent focus has greatly lead to great improvement, although there are still some challenges in ensuring that the key gaps in regions are closed up for balance.
What Travelers Needs To Know about Migration Policies
Traveller’s nationality has been one of the ways of screening primarily, but new ways have been discovered as other sources of information, data sharing and data processing allow a more direct focus on personal characteristics.
Sometimes this approach is flexible and can accommodate misuse of information gathered. It can also raise a host of legal questions and political questions related too individual privacy and data protection rights reflected in the data-sharing agreement.
This method has been implemented by the U.S. and European government to identify terrorist and serious transnational criminals through the collection and processing of increasing quantities of traveller data.
The sharing of Data by travelers has played a significant role in enhancing growth and also increasing the detection of crime.
Travelers Data Collection on Migration Policies
One of the key information for travellers is their names and record data, advanced information about the travellers and data collected by the individual.
Using Data for Screening Travelers
One of the means that has been used to screen travellers has been through data sharing.
Profiling and Data Mining
The passenger name and record agreement, Recent Developments in the Evolution of the transatlantic data- Protection Framework, commission Mandate for EU- US Data-Protection Agreement, Transfers of Data between EU and US government, Bodies or Authorities and Data Sharing and processing practices involving Canada: The EU-Canada PNR Agreement.
Why Migration Policy?
Migration policy can be defined as the law or affecting the movement of people, this simply means the policy covers a lot, which can be activities in the humanitarian, family, co-ethnic and family. More policies concerning migration exist but more are still under development.
There are lots of measures that has been adopted to measure data some of which are:
The world population policies data base:
Determinants of international migration Policy: This policy includes countries from 1945-2013, they also cover countries from Northern America and Western Europe.
The migration Governance indicator: this policy covers socioeconomic wellbeing of migrants, institutional capacity, regional and international cooperation and migrant rights.
The immigration policies in comparison (IMPIC) project: This policies areas include labour migration, family reunification and co-ethnic migration.
The IMPALA Project: This comprises of acquisition of citizenship, economic Migration, asylum, and refugee protection.
Other Facts about Migration policy
According to the data on SDG Indicator 10.7.2, more than half of all Governments (54%) report having a wide range of policies to facilitate orderly, safe, regular, and responsible migration and mobility of people.
In addition to that, in terms of specific policy measures to foster cooperation among countries as well as stakeholder participation 91 per cent of Governments indicate that they have an inter-ministerial coordination mechanism on migration in place, whereas 90 per cent have bilateral agreements on migration with other countries (UN DESA, IOM and OECD, 2019).
Analysis of a dataset of 49 countries indicates that countries often account for comprehensive migration government frameworks, most of them focusing on both emigration and immigration aspects.
On the other hand, there is room for improvement as policies are often not fully aligned with other important relevant policy domains such as sustainable development, disaster management and climate change mitigation and adaptation (IOM, 2019). Source from the Migration data portal
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